20% reductions in cooling tower make-up water and 50% reduction in blow-down were achieved at four U.S. Military Bases over a 24 month study period.
…Four different application case studies are presented in this paper in which High Voltage Capacitance Based (HVCB) technology was used to control biofouling. The applications include an evaporative cooling wall in a greenhouse in Oracle, Arizona; a cooling tower–condenser application in Phoenix, Arizona (study performed by Arizona State University under a U.S. Department of Energy grant); a cooling tower system using reclaimed industrial waste water at a wafer facility in Camas, WA; and a piping system for a major utility plant (Tennessee Valley Authority – TVA) using river water.
“The Zeta Rod improved operability of the conventional RO treatment (relative to no pretreatment) although the mechanism responsible for the observed reduction in membrane fouling is not well understood. Feed pressures and WTC were more stable during Zeta Rod use at 50% recovery than without its use at 15% recovery.”
Elevation of surface charge density on colloidal particles in the presence of a high potential electrostatic field is demonstrated as a viable technique for preventing the accumulation of solids in solvent extraction circuits. This technique performs without introducing compounds that potentially interfere with kinetics or with phase separation.