The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Research Lab (USACE ERDC/CERL) has published data collected during a 24-month demonstration/validation project in which the Zeta Rod® Water Management System was evaluated for its ability to deliver documented water conservation results while providing corrosion, scaling, and biofouling protection in open-loop evaporative cooling systems. The report, titled “Demonstration of Non-Corrosive, Capacitance-Based Water-Treatment Technology for Chilled Water Cooling Systems” evaluated sites at four military installations in Arizona, California, and Georgia. The study included systems where the technology was previously installed as part of a 2010 evaluation (ERDC/CERL TR-09–20) and added systems that broadened the range of water qualities and operating conditions evaluated.
Results and observations indicated that the technology delivered an average 20% reduction in makeup water usage and 50% reduction in blow-down, while meeting or exceeding criteria for protection of equipment from scale, corrosion, and biofouling. Reductions in make-up water represent a major water savings for an installation, while reductions of blow-down water represent a significant lessening of load on installation’s wastewater treatment system. (The direct use of the blow-down water for grey-water purposes appears feasible, but was not demonstrated.)
The technology was effective in water treatment and deposit control for a wide range of water conditions, from very soft, corrosion-promoting water to very hard, scale-promoting water. The validated applications are recommended for consideration by decision makers to reduce military installation chemical utilization and support Department of Defense Net Zero Water goals.
Click Here to link to the Full Study: “Demonstration of Non-Corrosive, Capacitance-Based Water-Treatment Technology for Chilled Water Cooling Systems” Report Number: ERDC/CERL TR14-15
Cooling Tower Institute (CTI) Green Technologies 2012
“Demonstration of Electronic Capacitor-Based Water Treatment System for Application at Military Installations” Report Number: ERDC/CERL TR 09–20
20% reductions in cooling tower make-up water and 50% reduction in blow-down were achieved at four U.S. Military Bases over a 24 month study period.
TVA Cooling Water Conservation Project: Zeta Rod Case Study
Imagine a swimming pool, roughly the size of a football field, five stories deep. This is the volume of water (5.8 million gallons of water to be exact) that one U.S. Government Data Facility in the Southeastern United States has saved in one year by employing Zeta Rod® Water Management systems technology for its open loop water treatment and cooling water conservation program. Most people are amazed to learn that a cooling tower system requires so much water to operate and that cooling water use generally eclipses all other facility water requirements.
The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) included a Zeta Rod Water Management system as part of an Energy Project for one of its major clients in the Southeastern United States. Results documented a 22% decrease in make up water, 65% decrease in wastewater, elimination of chemicals and an annual water savings of 5.8 million gallons.
Click here: TVA Cooling Water Conservation Project
Abstract: Zeta Rod® Water Management Systems were selected to be utilized as the water treatment system of choice for the recirculating open-loop chillers, heat exchangers and cooling towers for the two HVAC Central Plants at a U.S. Government Data Facility in the Southeastern United States. The purpose of the system was to deliver significant water conservation while protecting critical cooling equipment in a manner consistent with a well managed traditional chemical water treatment program. The Zeta Rod system was included as part of an Energy & Water Conservation Project implemented by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA).
- 22% less make up water used
- 65% less waste water sent to the sewer
- 5.8 Million gallons of water saved during the first year
Click here for full Case Study: TVA Cooling Water Conservation Project
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
Engineering and Construction Bulletin
Subject: Non-Chemical Treatment of Cooling Tower Water
Applicability: Directive and Guidance
Non-chemical treatment of cooling tower water has been found to be a viable option for many projects. Significant water and cost savings can be realized depending on the projects cooling systems size, amount of yearly operating time for the system and condition of the make-up water. There are various types of non-chemical treatment such as: hydrodynamic cavitation, pulsed and static electric field, ultra-sonic, and magnetic. CERL has performed a study on Zeta Rod Water Management Systems, a type of non-chemical treatment (High Voltage Capacitance Based – HVCB) used on the cooling systems at four U.S military bases. The bases selected had a wide range of make-up water use and climatic conditions. This system operated by installing insulated high voltage electrodes into the cooling tower piping creating a strong electrostatic field in the water stream.
Click here to view the USACE Bulletin
The application of a Zeta Rod Water Management program allowed the Crime Lab to earn the LEED point under Water Efficiency and Innovation in Design. In particular, a measurable non-regulated water use savings that is at least 10% of the total calculated baseline design (166,000 gallons for the Crime Lab) for regulated (fixtures) water use is eligible for an exemplary performance ID point under WE Credit 3. This project conservatively documented savings of 674% of the baseline calculation for an annual total of 1.1 million gallons.
click here to link to the Crime Lab first season project summary
The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Construction Engineering Research Lab has published findings of a two-year Demonstration Validation Study that successfully compared Zeta Rod® Water Management Systems in side-by-side cooling tower installations against standard chemical water treatment programs.
The study, entitled “Demonstration of Electronic Capacitor-Based Water Treatment System for Application at Military Installations” presents the data and results of the study.
Abstract: The United States Department of Defense (DoD) has a specific legislative mandate to increase its conservation of water and energy. It also is interested in improving the effectiveness of open-loop, cooling water treatment processes at its installations worldwide, for purposes of extending the useful life of evaporative cooling equipment and reducing energy use/costs. A Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was approved to demonstrate that, without using chemical additives, a capacitor-based water treatment system is capable of (1) providing equivalent protection to a chemical treatment program in preventing scale, corrosion, and bio-fouling; (2) allowing cooling systems to be operated in an enhanced water conservation mode; (3) delivering measurable reductions in water usage over conventional methods; and (4) providing control, monitoring, and wireless data transfer via the Internet. Results documented in the subsequent demonstration and evaluation project showed the technology was able to meet every objective and also was able to deliver a 20% reduction in cooling water use over standard chemical treatment methods. Application of this technology would allow the DoD to (1) reduce chemical usage, exposure, and disposal expenses; (2) conserve water and energy; (3) facilitate water re-use; and (4) meet new goals for conservation of resources.
To read more, click here to link to the Army Corps of Engineers published study
The 10,000 RT cooling tower at Formosa Plastics Group, Nan-Ya Plastics Jing-Hsin Power Plant in Taiwan uses Zeta Rod systems for fouling prevention, water conservation, chemical reduction and enhanced worker health & safety.
click here to link to the Nan-Ya Co-Gen Plant case study
…Four different application case studies are presented in this paper in which High Voltage Capacitance Based (HVCB) technology was used to control biofouling. The applications include an evaporative cooling wall in a greenhouse in Oracle, Arizona; a cooling tower–condenser application in Phoenix, Arizona (study performed by Arizona State University under a U.S. Department of Energy grant); a cooling tower system using reclaimed industrial waste water at a wafer facility in Camas, WA; and a piping system for a major utility plant (Tennessee Valley Authority – TVA) using river water.